Therapy will depend on each patient's situation, and the rehabilitation plan will change during the recovery process, depending on which part(s) of the body or abilities were affected and the type and severity of damage.
However let's have a look at certain stroke rehabilitation therapies and the variety of specialists involved:
1. Physical Therapy includes a variety of muscle maneuvers, activities and exercises designed to train the brain and the muscles to work together using an approach that builds muscle strength and maintains healthy muscle tone. Nearly any 30-60 min 5-7 days/week physical therapy is effective to improve your mobility, walk at a faster pace, function more independently, and have a better balance, and is usually already initiated in the hospital, shortly after the stroke. Your physical therapist should be specialized in treating disabilities related to motor and sensory impairments, and be able to help restore physical functioning by evaluating and treating problems with movement, balance, and coordination; and constraint-induced therapy, in which an unaffected limb is immobilized, causing the person to use the affected limb to regain movement and function. Therapeutic recreation specialists help people with a variety of disabilities to develop and use their leisure time to enhance their health, independence, and quality of life.
2. Occupational Therapy is a more task-focused type of training, and therapists work with stroke survivors on practical, real-world, day-to-day tasks such as getting in and out of bed and dressed, eating & drinking, and general walking and climbing of stairs. Occupational therapists also help to improve sensory abilities while ensuring safety in the post-stroke period, such as for personal grooming, preparing meals, and housecleaning.
3. Speech and Swallow Therapy will support you in getting
those skills back, as they require thinking about the action while coordinating muscles of the face, mouth, tongue, and throat. Speech-language pathologists help a person relearn how to use language or develop alternative means of communication, and they also might teach problem-solving and social skills needed to cope with those aftereffects of a stroke. Speech therapy can be focused on understanding words as well as on producing words that others can clearly understand, and usually involves longer practice and repetition. Swallowing problems are usually more of an unpleasant surprise, but can be life threatening, and therapie to improve swallowing starts typically directly in the hospital, eventually by learning the "chin-tuck maneuver" : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4687995/
4. Visual Therapy and balance therapy are often scheduled in combined rehabilitation sessions for stroke survivors, because vision partially relies on good balance and balance partially relies on good vision, and the areas of the brain that control these two functions have to interact.
5. Cognitive Therapy involves interventions that are designed to improve thinking skills and problem-solving abilities, such as using computer-generated and video-game rehabilitation therapy. Stroke survivors who participate in cognitive therapy recover better than stroke survivors who do not. Stroke survivors recovering from a cortical stroke often have more cognitive issues than after recovering from a small vessel subcortical stroke, and left-sided cortical strokes cause different cognitive deficits than right-sided ones.
6. Innovative Physical & New Types of Therapy are including mirror therapy, and electrical therapy, biological therapy, and alternative medicine includes treatments such as massage, yoga, meditation, herbal therapy, acupuncture, music and oxygen therapy. New therapies include Noninvasive brain stimulation, and techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation which have been used with some success in a research setting to help improve a variety of motor skills. Biological therapies, such as stem cells, are being investigated, but should only be used as part of a clinical trial. , where results are being evaluated. Research studies show that the use of new and innovative rehabilitative therapies tend to test better on measures of stroke outcomes and usually do not experience negative effects.
7. Psychatrical and Psychological Therapy: Psychologists, and Psychatrists can help with the person’s mental and emotional health and assess cognitive skills, as well as support stress, e.g. with EDMR.
8. Doctors, Physicians & Nurses: Your doctors have the primary responsibility for managing and coordinating the long-term care of you as a stroke survivor, including recommending which rehabilitation programs will best address your individual needs. However, with our experience we like to encourage you to take an active part in this. Doctors supporting often include physiatrists (specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation), neurologists, internists, geriatricians (specialists in seniors), and family practice physicians. A physician also may recommend medicines to ease pain or treat a condition. Specialized rehabilitation nurses can help a stroke victim relearn the skills needed to carry out the basic activities of daily living. They also provide information about routine health care, such as how to follow a medication schedule, how to care for the skin and manage bladder and bowel issues, how to move out of a bed and into a wheelchair, and special needs for people with diabetes.
9. Job Consultants or Vocational Therapists may support in career counsel, and in helping you in case of residual disabilities to identify vocational strengths and develop résumés that highlight those strengths. They also can help to identify potential employers, assist in specific job searches, and provide referrals to vocational rehabilitation agencies. Usually they work hand in hand with social workers, who can assist with making financial decisions and plan the return home or to a new living place. They also can help plan for care after being discharged from a rehabilitation facility.https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/stroke/in-depth/stroke-rehabilitation/art-20045172https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Post-Stroke-Rehabilitation-Fact-Sheet#whatishttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lMtwbj5TTc